It's the evening of Thursday, April 1, and, no foolin', Broadway's St. James Theater is packed. Previews of the musical "American Idiot" started little more than a week ago in anticipation of an April 20 opening, and the theater has been close to capacity every night.
Onstage, faded rock posters and multiple TV screens provide the backdrop for 95 minutes of singing, dancing and Green Day songs. The plot centers on three young men trying to escape dead-end suburban lives. Will fails to launch even when his girlfriend falls pregnant; the other two "succeed," in a manner of speaking. Tunny winds up being seduced by a flashy military recruiter, goes to war and promptly loses a leg and gains a nurse to love. The other, the Jesus of Suburbia on 2004's "American Idiot" album, renamed Johnny, picks up a dope habit and girlfriend, loses the latter because of the former and winds up right back where he started. He comes home, along with his friends, emboldened with a new sense of personal responsibility.
The story contains almost no spoken dialogue-instead, it's told mostly through songs from "American Idiot" and its 2009 follow-up album, "21st Century Breakdown." There is a band onstage, and though the songs are sonically fuller and richer as adapted for the theater, they still retain the scrappy quality of the originals.
Watch the Billboard interview with the cast of "American Idiot"
The ending isn't exactly a happy one, but it's not King Lear, either, at least according to Green Day frontman Billie Joe Armstrong.
"The characters all made mistakes and learned lessons," he says. "It's still the beginning of a journey for them. For Johnny, he doesn't blame everything on his parents or society anymore, and he can move forward."
While the show tells the story of Johnny's transition, it also represents the maturation of Green Day. When the band first broke out of the Bay Area with snotty three-chord punk in the early '90s, the last place anyone would ever expect to see it would be on the Great White Way. But as "American Idiot" adeptly demonstrates, things rarely turn out the way you think they will.
TALES OF ANOTHER BROKEN HOME
While the rock opera has been around since "Hair" premiered in 1968 and was reborn when "Rent" hit it big in 1996, a musical based on a single album is a more ambitious concept, only attempted once before on Broadway with the Who's "Tommy" in 1993 (which also had its Broadway premiere at the St. James).
But incorporating rock into a production has become so common that 10 out of 24 musicals that will be on Broadway in April can loosely be considered rock musicals. Recent examples range from "Rock of Ages," which uses classic pop-metal tracks to drive the story, and "Fela!," which tells the life story of African musician Fela Kuti through his songs, to the off-Broadway emo musical "Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson" to the long-delayed, costly and U2-scored "Spider-Man."
In this case, the story of St. Jimmy the drug dealer, the Jesus of Suburbia and ingénue Whatshername hews closely to the storyline laid out in "American Idiot." The tale is already well-known-the album, which was released in 2004, has sold 5.9 million copies, according to Nielsen SoundScan, and won a Grammy Award for best rock album.
It's this storyline that initially prompted director Michael Mayer to put in a call to Armstrong. "I fell in love with the record when it first came out," he says. "I thought it had the makings of an amazing musical theater piece. After 'Spring Awakening' [the Mayer-directed musical adaptation of a German play that attracted a huge young audience and won eight Tony Awards] moved to Broadway, I did an interview and the reporter asked me to think about other possible sources for a rock musical, and I immediately said 'American Idiot.' "
Mayer invited Armstrong to a showing of "Spring Awakening," and the two wound up talking all night after the performance. "Billie gave me carte blanche to develop scenarios and characters, and I asked for six months of exclusivity to put something together before we did a reading," he says.
For his part, Armstrong says he knew all along the story was there. "Originally, we thought about doing a movie version of it," he says. "I always thought it should be staged in some way. Then we took some meetings and realized the movie industry makes the music industry look like a mom-and-pop store. When I talked to Michael, I sensed immediately that he got it." (His movie goal may not be so far-fetched: Entertainment news site Deadline New York recently reported that talks are under way with Playtone partners Tom Hanks and Gary Goetzman to turn the musical into a feature film.)
The show started to develop in 2008, with Mayer presenting workshops to Armstrong and exchanging e-mails with him seeking feedback. By December 2008, Mayer has prepared a version for the stage, and in July 2009, the show started rehearsals for a run at the Berkeley (Calif.) Repertory Theater in the band's hometown. Armstrong is credited as the writer for all the lyrics, Green Day is credited with writing all the music, and Armstrong and Meyer co-wrote the story.
"American Idiot" opened at the Berkeley Rep Sept. 15, 2009, after 11 days of previews and was scheduled to run until Oct. 11; it wound up being extended twice, running until Nov. 15 and becoming the highest-grossing show in the theater's history.
Critical reaction to the initial staging was mixed. The Los Angeles Times praised it, noting, "If it doesn't spin an entirely satisfying yarn, its roar is still irresistible, even when the object of protest remains elusive." The Oakland Tribune snarked, "[What] once was a fine Gouda, has been prepackaged as Velveeta . . . In other words, it should do big business on Broadway."
A few years after Mayer first called Armstrong, the play headed east to the St. James, with previews starting March 24.
MIRACLE ON 44TH STREET?
Ira Pittelman, one of the "American Idiot" producers along with partner/actor Tom Hulce, thinks the show's use of rock'n'roll will draw a large audience seeking something that reflects the spirit of the times. "If you look at the music of the last 50 years, it's all rock," he says. "Every new musical has some sort of rock element in it."
Pittelman and Hulce, who worked with Mayer as co-producers on "Spring Awakening," raised the cash to stage "American Idiot" from a group of investors, as well as putting in some of their own money.
"We had a workshop in Berkeley and we invited a group of people who we consider to be very serious about theater," he says. "They were all very supportive of it."
Pittelman's and Hulce's track records no doubt helped bolster supporters' confidence. In addition to "Spring Awakening," Hulce also has extensive acting experience, playing Mozart in "Amadeus" and Pinto in "Animal House," and he picked up two Emmy Awards for "The Heidi Chronicles." Pittelman, who founded Heartland Music and ran Universal Music Media, won a Tony in 2002 for "Private Lives" and co-produced "Topdog/Underdog," which won the Pulitzer Prize for drama.
Pittelman won't reveal the exact costs of the production, but says that it's a seven-figure number. According to Charlotte St. Martin, executive director of the trade association the Broadway League, the average cost of a play is between $2 million and $4 million, while many musicals can cost upwards of $10 million. Because of this, she says, musicals take quite a bit longer to recoup their initial costs and become profitable. "Musicals tend to have longer runs than plays," she notes.
She adds that one out of five shows eventually recoups on the initial investment, but the process takes quite a bit longer than it did 50 years ago. "In the '50s and '60s, a play could recoup in six months," she says. "Now you're looking at one to two years, because of the higher costs of putting on a show."
"There is a lot going on in this production," Hulce says. "We have a lot of lighting; we have a computer 'brain' that sends images to all the screens on the stage at certain points. It's not super high gloss, but it is involved."
In terms of the financial breakdown, Pittelman says the theater is "one of the last places where authors always own their own work." He adds that he and Hulce have a financial relationship with the band that lasts as long as they produce the show. The songs are covered under a "grand rights" license; usually in the theater world, that license covers songs written specifically for a performance and publishers only share in the royalties for ancillary products like sheet music and mechanicals from cast albums. In Green Day's case, because the songs were written before the show, the band and its publisher, Warner/Chappell, both get royalties.
While Armstrong didn't invest his own money in the show, he could potentially pull in a handsome profit, especially if it does well and goes on tour. An original Broadway cast recording, which he produced and played on with his Green Day bandmates Tre Cool and Mike Dirnt, will be released April 20 and could help drive sales of the original album.
Generally, if a show succeeds, its life span can be extended by years, even decades. A play is typically staged on Broadway, then goes on a nationwide tour, then another nationwide non-union tour, before finally being released to schools and community groups. And once a play is adopted by high school theater departments nationwide, it could run for generations-just look at "Oklahoma!" or "Bye Bye Birdie."
Still, the market for rock musicals hasn't fully matured yet. "Rock musicals don't tend to do well," says Liz Wollman, assistant professor of music in the department of fine and performing arts at Baruch College in New York and the author of "The Theater Will Rock: A History of the Rock Musical, From Hair to Hedwig" (University of Michigan Press, 2006). "There are exceptions, like 'Hair.' But even a production like 'Jesus Christ Superstar' only broke even, because it wasn't as successful as an album."
Wollman says that recent hits like "Spring Awakening" have led to a resurgence for the rock musical on Broadway and notes that it could be the start of a new trend that would benefit "American Idiot." She adds that the fact that "Idiot" is directed by Meyer and stars a "Spring Awakening" alum, John Gallagher Jr., will also help draw crowds."Green Day fans will come, of course," she says. "As will 'Spring Awakening' fans and fans of [music supervisor/ arranger] Tom Kitt, who has his own following. If they can get affordable tickets, students will go see it, too. But beyond those crowds, I don't know who else will go."
Wollman says she doesn't know whether the show will ultimately be sustainable unless it manages to reach a wider audience. "Broadway tends to be an older crowd," she says. "There will be tension, because what Broadway thinks is edgy is actually not edgy at all from a rock perspective."
The larger economic conditions on Broadway appear to be promising, though. "Broadway really escaped the last recession," the Broadway League's St. Martin says. "Over the last 50 years, there is really no correlation between Broadway and the broader economic condition, unless you look at an event like 9/11. How well Broadway does is much more dependent on how good the shows are."
WHEN IT'S TIME (TO PROMOTE the show)
While Wollman says that Broadway remains a mostly older audience, she does concede that the times are changing. "Kids are more comfortable with musicals," she says. "Look at 'High School Musical' or 'Glee.' It's part of pop culture for them." St. Martin says that while Broadway hasn't made a focused effort to reach a younger crowd, the fact that it's more open to younger producers means more shows that will appeal to Generations X and Y.
The kids are a primary target for "Idiot," but so are their parents. On the night of April 1 the theater was full of families-Mom, Dad and two teenage kids, out for a night at the theater. Pittelman says the show has so far spent $500,000 on TV ads alone and will roll out a radio campaign soon, but it scored an earned media coup early on, performing on January's Grammy Awards telecast. Hulce adds that the show has mounted a large online campaign, with ads on a wide variety of theater sites and music sites. Tickets to the show are priced to appeal to a wide demographic, too: Student rush seats are $27, and regular tickets range from $30 to $127. MTV is also working with the band-the channel is giving away tickets to a performance and airing a half-hour special, called "Green Day Rocks Broadway," a behind-the-scenes look at the musical.
But a traditional TV, radio and online campaign might not be enough, says Janet Billig, an executive producer for "Rock of Ages."
"We did some audience research and found that almost half of our crowd had never been to a Broadway show before," she says. "So we knew there was no way we could stick with the traditional Broadway marketing plan. We have a great team with Broadway cred, much like 'American Idiot,' so we know we can draw the usual theater crowd that way. But we needed to go beyond that."
Billig says one key part of the "Rock of Ages" promotion was letting people hear the music associated with the show. "We can't just say, 'Come hear all your favorite '80s classics,' " she says. "They need to hear it blaring out of their computer. We do things like have the cast sing at sports games. We also know that women are the primary ticket buyers, so we work with mom blogs; we also make sure the poster appeals to kids."
All the savvy marketing in the world won't help if the show doesn't have a strong story, and John Gallagher Jr., who plays Johnny, says he's counting on the story's relatability to keep drawing crowds.
"It's a story about kids in a world where the TV is always on and they are struggling to find their own voice," he says. "Whether the play has a happy ending or not depends on your perspective. But in the end, Johnny goes through something a lot of people struggle with and comes out still standing."