M.I.A. reportedly signed a contract with the NFL that indemnifies the NFL against such fines -- while the NFL in turn has indemnified NBC, which aired the broadcast.
The Super Bowl's most FCC fine, a $550,000 charge to CBS over Janet Jackson's 2004 wardrobe malfunction, was thrown out by Philadelphia's 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in November.
Sunday's performance was watched by 114 million viewers, making the Super Bowl XLVI the most-watched television program in U.S. history. The performance helped boost sales of Madonna's new single, which stand at over 100,000 downloads so far, according to industry sources, as well as her "Celebration" greatest hits album and other releases.
NBC and the NFL apologized for M.I.A.'s middle finger on Monday, with NFL spokesman Brian McCarthy stating, "The obscene gesture in the performance was completely inappropriate, very disappointing and we apologize to our fans."